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Fundamentally, task code is a Liquid template for rendering JSON instructions for actions. In the same way that a Liquid theme might take Shopify store data and render HTML for a web browser, Mechanic task code takes incoming events, and uses them as variables to render JSON objects, defining work to be performed.
Shopify Liquid is the implementation of open-source Liquid used within Shopify itself, including Shopify's Online Store themes. Shopify Liquid contains many filters and objects that are not a part of open-source Liquid.
Mechanic Liquid is the implementation of open-source Liquid used here, within Mechanic. It contains many filters and objects that are unique to Mechanic, in addition to some unique language features.